5.13.1. Features of a design
The engine cooling system liquid (with compulsory circulation of liquid), tight, with a broad tank.
The system is filled with the cooling liquid on the basis of ethylene glycol (antifreeze) which is not freezing at ambient temperature to –40 °C.
Fig. 5.10. Arrangement of elements of the cooling system: 1 – the water pump (on a photo it is not visible, located under a cover of the drive of the gas-distributing mechanism); 2 – thermostat; 3 – steam discharge hose of the thermostat; 4 – steam discharge hose of a radiator; 5 – broad tank; 6 – the bringing radiator hose; 7 – radiator electric fans; 8 – radiator
The arrangement of elements of the cooling system is shown in fig. 5.10.
The replacement procedure of cooling liquid is described in section 4 "Maintenance".
In the cooling system of the engine cooling liquids of production of the ESSEX or Shell companies are applied.
The water pump of centrifugal type provides compulsory circulation of liquid in the cooling system, is installed in a forward part of the block of cylinders and is given to rotation by a gear belt of the drive of the camshaft. The closed bearings which are not needing lubricant replenishment are installed in the pump. The pump is not subject to repair, at refusal (a leak of liquid or damage of bearings) it is replaced assembled.
The thermostat with a firm thermosensitive filler maintains the normal working temperature of cooling liquid and reduces time of warming up of the engine. At a temperature of cooling liquid up to 85-89 °C the thermostat is completely closed, liquid circulates on a small contour, passing a radiator that accelerates warming up of the engine. At a temperature of 85-89 °C the thermostat begins to open, and at 99–102 °C opens completely, providing circulation of liquid through a radiator.
Cooling system electric fans with plastic six-blade krylchatka serve for an additional obduv of a radiator, join and switched off on a signal of an electronic control unit by the engine. And depending on tension of the thermal mode and an operating mode of the conditioner electric fans can rotate with small and high speed. Change of the high-speed mode of fans is provided with the control unit of the engine by means of connection of additional resistance. Electric fans together with a casing are fixed on a cooling system radiator.
Radiator with a horizontal stream of liquid, with a tubular and tape aluminum core and plastic tanks. In tanks the bringing and taking away branch pipes of hoses to a water shirt of the engine and a branch pipe of the hose connecting a radiator to a broad tank are executed.
The broad tank serves for compensation of the changing volume of cooling liquid depending on its temperature. The tank is made of translucent plastic. Tags of "MAX" and "MIN" for control of level of cooling liquid are applied on its walls, the bulk mouth which is hermetically closed by a plastic stopper with the valve supporting excessive pressure in system from above is located.
Serviceability of valves of a stopper is very important for normal operation of the cooling system, but often at emergence of problems (boiling of cooling liquid, etc.) motorists pay attention only to operation of the thermostat, forgetting to check valves. Leakage of the final valve leads to decrease in temperature of boiling of cooling liquid, and its jamming in the closed state — to emergency increase in pressure in system that can cause damage of a radiator and hoses.
The cooling system by means of hoses included a radiator of a heater of salon.