5.1. Features of a design
Install the four-cylinder four-cycle petrol engines (fig. 5.1 and fig. 5.2) equipped with system of injection of fuel with a line arrangement of cylinders on the Chery Amulet cars and with the camshaft placed in a head of the block of cylinders.
Fig. 5.1. Type of the engine on the left side: 1 – cover of the gas-distributing mechanism; 2 – cover of a head of the block of cylinders; 3 – throttle knot; 4 – sensor of provision of a butterfly valve; 5 – idling sensor; 6 – receiver; 7 – sensor of absolute pressure; 8 – stopper of an oil-filling mouth; 9 – ignition coil; 10 – thermostat case; 11 – head of the block of cylinders; 12 – flywheel; 13 – spark plugs; 14 – final collector; 15 – oil case of the engine; 16 – block of cylinders; 17 – water pump
Fig. 5.2. Type of the engine on the right side: 1 – thermostat case; 2 – ignition coil; 3 – stopper of an oil-filling mouth; 4 – head of the block of cylinders; 5 – nozzle; 6 – index of level of oil; 7 – fuel stage; 8 – cover of a head of the block of cylinders; 9 – receiver; 10 – sensor of provision of a butterfly valve; 11 – idling sensor; 12 – valve of the conductor of an adsorber; 13 – inlet pipe; 14 – block of cylinders; 15 – an opening stopper for oil discharge; 16 – oil case; 17 – oil filter; 18 – hose of ventilation of crankcase gases; 19 – flywheel; 20 – sensor of temperature of cooling liquid; 21 – sensor of phases
The block of cylinders is cast from special high-strength cast iron that gives to an engine design rigidity and durability.
The channels for cooling liquid forming a cooling shirt are made on all height of the block, it improves cooling of pistons and reduces deformations of the block from an uneven overheat. The shirt of cooling is open in the top part towards a block head. In the lower part of the block of cylinders five support of radical bearings of a bent shaft which covers are attached by bolts are located. In support the thin-walled steel-aluminum inserts performing function of bearings of a bent shaft are established. In an average support there are pro-points into which the persistent half rings holding a bent shaft from axial movements are inserted.
The bent shaft is cast from special high-strength cast iron. Radical and conrod necks of a shaft of a proshlifovana. For lubricant of connecting rods in cranked to a shaft the oil channels closed by caps are drilled. Eight counterbalances which are located on cranked to a shaft are intended for reduction of vibrations.
On the forward end of a bent shaft the oil pump, the cogged pulley of a belt of the drive of the camshaft and a pulley of the drive of the generator, compressor of the conditioner and pump of the hydraulic booster of steering is installed.
Rods steel, shod, with covers on the lower heads. In the lower head of a rod thin-walled inserts are established, in the top head the stalebronzovy plug is pressed.
Pistons are cast from aluminum alloy. On each of them three rings are established: two top — compression and lower — oil scraper. The bottoms of pistons have the convex form.
The head of the block of cylinders is cast from aluminum alloy, installed from above on the block of cylinders. In the lower part of a head channels on which the liquid cooling combustion chambers circulates are executed. In a head the camshaft is installed. It rotates in the support executed in a block head.
The camshaft is cast from cast iron. For wear reduction working surfaces of cams, surfaces under an epiploon and the clown of the drive of the fuel pump of a termoobrabotana bleaching. Camshaft cams through hydropushers put in action levers, and levers — valves.
The engine has two valves on the cylinder: one inlet and one final.
On each valve one spring is established.
The directing plugs and saddles of valves are pressed in a block head. On the directing plugs the oil scraper caps reducing hit of oil in cylinders are established.
The camshaft is put in action by a rubber gear belt from a bent shaft.
The lubrication system combined: spraying and under pressure. Under pressure radical and conrod bearings and support of camshafts are greased. The system consists of an oil case, the gear oil pump with an oil receiver, a full-line oil filter, the sensor of pressure of oil and oil channels.
The cooling system of the engine consists of a shirt of cooling, a radiator with electric fans, the centrifugal water pump, the thermostat and hoses.
The power supply system consists of the electric fuel pump installed in the fuel tank, throttle knot, the filter of thin purification of fuel, the regulator of pressure of fuel, nozzles and fuel hoses.
The system of catching of vapors of fuel with a coal adsorber preventing an exit of vapors of fuel in the atmosphere functionally enters a power supply system.
At the known skill and attentiveness many malfunctions of the engine and its systems can be determined by color of the smoke which is coming out an exhaust pipe quite precisely. Blue smoke demonstrates hit of oil in combustion chambers, and constant smoking — a sign of strong wear of details of tsilindroporshnevy group. Emergence of smoke at throttlings, after long scrolling by a starter, after long work idling or right after braking by the engine indicates, as a rule, wear of oil scraper caps of valves. Black smoke — too rich mix because of malfunction of a control system of the engine or nozzles. Gray or dense white smoke with moisture impurity (especially after an engine overheat) means that cooling liquid got to the combustion chamber through the damaged laying of a head of the block of cylinders. At strong damage of this laying liquid sometimes gets also into an oil case, oil level sharply increases, and oil turns into a muddy whitish emulsion. White smoke (steam) at not heated-up engine in damp or cold weather — the normal phenomenon.
It is quite often possible to see the car standing in the middle of a city stopper with an open cowl which is letting out puffs of vapor. Overheat. Better, of course, not to allow it, glancing at the index of temperature more often. But nobody is insured from the fact that the thermostat can unexpectedly fail, the electric fan or will just begin to flow cooling liquid. If you missed the overheat moment, do not panic and do not aggravate a situation. The overheat as its possible consequences is not so terrible. Never at once you suppress the engine — it will receive heatstroke and, perhaps, остыв, in general will refuse to be started. Having stopped, let's it work on single turns, then in system liquid circulation will remain. Include a heater on the maximum power and open a cowl. If there is an opportunity, water a radiator with cold water. Only having achieved decrease in temperature, stop the engine. But never at once open a stopper of a broad tank: on the superheated engine the geyser from under an open stopper is provided. You do not hurry, let's everything cool down, so you keep health of the car and your own health.
Practically all instructions to the car contain the recommendation at launch of the engine surely to squeeze out coupling. This recommendation is justified only in case of start-up in a hard frost not to spend energy of the rechargeable battery for a provorachivaniye of shaft and gear wheels of the transmission in the thickened oil. In other cases it is just the recommendation in order that the car did not start if on forgetfulness transfer is included. This reception is harmful to the engine as the considerable effort is transmitted through the squeezed-out coupling on the persistent bearing of a bent shaft, and at start-up (especially cold) lubricant to it long does not arrive. The bearing quickly wears out, the bent shaft receives an axial side play, start-off from the place begins to be followed by strong vibration. Not to damage the engine, take in a habit to check position of the lever of gear shifting before start-up and to launch the engine at the tightened emergency brake, without squeezing out coupling without emergency.